Trees of the Vermont Law School Campus

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1. Eastern Cottonwood
Scientific Name: Populus deltoides
Leaves: Alternate, triangular leaves with a flattened base and a long, flat petiole. Dark green in summer, fade through the autumn to poor shades of light green, yellow, and brown.
Flowers: Male and female flowers on separate trees. The large male flowers shed abundant amounts of pollen in early spring (and can have bright gold, green, or red flowers), while the female flowers eventually give rise to chains of immature green fruits. In late spring and early summer, the fruit capsules open to release their small seeds attached to many cotton-like strands.
Buds: Large, pointed winter buds on its stout, rugged twigs. These begin to break in early spring, when the large bud scales fall off and expose the green tissue underneath.
Bark: Smooth to lightly fissured and silvery white when young, but quickly changes to a brownish gray with maturity, developing very deep fissures between the rounded to flattened vertical ridges
Height: 65-80 ft.
Diam: 2-2 ? in.
Range: Eastern U.S., Midwest, Great Plains, South and Central U.S. Native to Vermont
Other: Mature Cottonwood bark is among the thickest of all trees in North America. The bark is so thick that it can survive forest fires with only some outer bark loss
2. Staghorn Sumac or Velvet Sumac
Scientific Name: Rhus typhina
Leaves: Large and pinnatley compound with 11 to 31 leaflets. Each leaflet is 2 in -5 in. long. Leaves are 1ft. to 2 ft. long.
Flowers: Greenish petals; crowded in an upright cluster
Buds: Terminal bud is absent
Bark: Dark brown; thin; smooth or becoming scaly
Height: 30 ft
Diam: 8 in. or larger
Range: Southern Ontario east to Nova Scotia, south to northwest South Carolina, west to Tennessee, and north to Minnesota
Other: Fruit is rounded, 1-seeded, dark red, covered with long dark red hairs crowded in upright clusters; maturing in late summer and autumn, remaining attached in the winter. Twigs are stout and pubescent with milky sap. Staghorn sumac is not poisonous and serves as browse for wildlife throughout the year. The sumac species can be a source of honey.
3. Boxelder or Ashleaf Maple
Scientific Name: Acer negundo
Leaves: 6 in. long; pinnately compound with 3 to 7 leaflets (2-4 in. long, 1- 1 in. wide); shape varies but generally ovate or elliptical; long-pointed at tip, short-pointed at base; coarsely saw-toothed; surfaces light green above and pale green below. Fall color pale yellow.
Flowers: 3/16 in. long; very small yellow-green; several clustered on slender drooping stalks; appearing with or before the leaves in spring
Buds: Valvate and overlapping; short-stalked; reddish or whitish; wooly or downy; densely hairy.
Bark: Light gray-brown; with many narrow ridges and fissures; becoming deeply furrowed.
Height: 30-60 ft.
Diam: 2 ? ft
Range: Eastern United States to Southern Canada; south to central Florida; west to South Texas; scattered from New Mexico to California; in New Hampshire along Connecticut River and western areas. Naturalized in New England.
Other: One of the most common and best known maples. Many people do not know it is a maple due to its compound leaves
4. Black Willow
Scientific Name: Salix nigra
Leaves: 3-5 in. length. Alternate, light green leaves are long, thin, and finely serrated, with a very short
Flowers: Male and female catkins in separate tress. Pussy willows are flower buds
Buds: Alternate with a single cap-like scale. No terminal bud.
Bark: Dark, black bark on mature trees
Height: 60-80 ft.
Diam: 1 ? - 2 ? ft
Range: Black Willow is native to most of the eastern half of North America. including Vermont
Other: The lightweight wood from this tree was once used in the
production of artificial limbs
5. Black Locust
Scientific Name: Robinia pseudacacia L.
Leaves: Pinnately compound, 6-12 in. 7-19 egg-shaped leaflets, 1-2 in., paired except at end. Without teeth.
Flowers: White, fragrant, showy, - 1 in. Large clusters 4-8 in. long. 5 unequal petals. May-June.
Buds: Small short side buds. Lacks terminal bud.
Bark: Grey with reddish tinge. Deeply grooved bark with interlacing ridges.
Height: 40-80 ft
Diam: 1-3 ft
Range: Central and southern U.S. Naturalized in New England. Native to North America but not to Vermont
Other: Very rot-resistant wood. 2-4 in. flat pods containing dark brown seeds which mature in autumn. Thorny branches
6. Basswood or American Linden
Scientific Name: Tilia Americana L.
Leaves: Simple, large. 3-6 in. up to 8 in. Heart shaped with uneven base. Toothed. Nearly hairless with tufts of hair in corner of lateral veins. Nutrient rich
Flowers: 5 cream colored petals. Fragrant clusters June August
Buds: Buds resemble a mouse with a motorcycle helmet.
in. green to red. 2-4 visible bud scales. No terminal bud

Bark: Gray, smooth, becoming ridged.
Height: 60-100 ft.
Diam: 2-3 ft.
Range: Southern Canada, eastern and central U.S.
to North Carolina. Native to Vermont.

Other: A preferred carving wood. Nutrient demanding tree. Important honey tree that is full of bees when flowering
7. Gray Birch
Scientific Name: Betula populifolia
Leaves: 2-4 in. long, 1 -2 in. wide. Triangular; sharply double saw toothed; dark green above, paler beneath with tufts of hair on veins; fall color pale yellow.
Flowers: Brownish, usually solitary, cyndrical catkins; in early spring.
Buds: Small, light brown to greenish; Terminal bud lacking except on spur shoots.
Bark: Dark brown when young, then grayish- white marked by dark brown chevrons; bark does not readily peel.
Height: Height of 30-40 ft
Diam: Diameter of 1-1 ? ft.
Range: Northeast United States south to New Jersey; Southern Canada. Native in Vermont.
Other: Often mistaken for paper birch (Betula papyrifera). Fast growing and short lived, 20-30 years. Used as an ornamental, for fuel, and for cabinetwork.
8. Lilac
Scientific Name: Syringa vulgaris
Leaves: 2-5 in. long, 1 -3 in. wide. Broadly ovate, almost heart-shaped; simple; dark green.
Flowers: Showy clusters 6-8 in. long. very fragrant. purple to lavender-lilac, some are white.
Buds: Reddish; opposite side buds
Bark: Gray to gray-brown. Smooth but finely shreddy when large.
Height: Height of 12-15 ft
Diam: Spread of 12 -18 in
Range: Lilacs grow in much of the United States and Canada, from Zones 3 to 7. Not native in Vermont.
Other: Very popular and widely cultivated. Brought to the United States in the 1750s. Lilac bushes can live for hundreds of years.
9. Silver Maple
Scientific Name: Acer saccharinum
Leaves: 4-6 in. in diameter. Dull green above, silvery-white beneath, and turning a pale yellow color in the autumn. Deeply 5 lobed.
Flowers: Greenish yellow color. Usually appear in early spring
Buds: Buds have sharp, prominent overlapping scales, similar to red maple but more of a reddish brown color
Bark: Young trees have a silver gray color. Adult trees are gray. Bark becomes furrowed into long scaly shaggy ridges
Height: Height of 60 to 80 ft.
Diam: Diameter of 2 to 3 ft
Range: Southern Ontario east to New Brunswick, south to northwest Florida, west to east Oklahoma, north to northern Minnesota; to 2000 ft in elevation. Disjuncts found in eastern Louisiana and upper Michigan.
Other: When twigs are crushed, a slightly unpleasant odor is noticed. Silver maple is used as an ornamental. Since the branches are brittle and break off during high winds and its fruit create a lot of litter, some communities do not permit its planting as a street tree. Sugar can be obtained from the sweetish sap but the yield is low.
10. Eastern White Pine
Scientific Name: Pinus strobus
Leaves: 2.5- 5 in. long. 5 needles in a bundle and flexible. Blue- green color
Flowers: (Cones) 4-8 in. long. Yellow-brown color, long stalked, and often slightly curved.
Buds: Covered with thin reddish or orange-brown scales.
Bark: Gray; smooth becoming rough; thick and deeply furrowed into narrow scaly ridges.
Height: 100 ft or more
Diam: 3-4 ft. or more
Range: Southeastern Canada, northeastern United States, and southern Appalachians. Local disjuncts in central North Carolina, central Tennessee, eastern Kentucky, west central Indiana, and northern Illinois. Native in Vermont.
Other: Used in construction, millwork, trim, and pulpwood. The tall straight trunks were prized for ship masts in colonial period. Highly susceptible to white pine weevil which deforms the tree making it unfit for lumber. The white pine blister rust caused by a fungus also a danger.
11. Norway Maple
Scientific Name: Acer platanoides L.
Leaves: 4-7 in., 5 sharp pointed lobes with a few large teeth. Very dark, dull green to bronze. Yellow foliage in fall. Long stem with milky sap.
Flowers: Small with 5 greenish-yellow petals in upright or spreading clusters appearing with or before leaves
Buds: Large, reddish-brown. Terminal bud is larger than the laterals.
Bark: Gray or brown becoming rough and furrowed into narrow ridges that form diamond-shaped spaces similar to, but finer than white ash.
Height: Height of 60 ft.
Diam: Diameter of 2 ft.
Range: Native across Europe. Widely planted in the U.S. as a city shade tree. Not native in Vermont.
Other: Fast growing, invasive, and tolerant of harsh, city conditions.
12. Red Oak
Scientific Name: Quercus rubra
Leaves: 4-9 in. long, 3-6 in. wide; elliptical; dull green above and dull light green beneath with tufts of white hairs; smooth on both sides; spikes on tips of lobes; v-shaped space between lobes; triangular in outline; turn brown or dark red in fall.
Flowers: Long spreading strings
Buds: 1/4 in. long; rounded on sides; brown; blunt-pointed; smooth; not angled at cross section; form in clusters at end of twigs.
Bark: Dark gray or blackish; becoming broken into ridges; rough; furrowed into scaly ridges; inner bark is reddish.
Height: Height of 60-90 ft
Diam: Diameter of 1-2? ft.
Range: Eastern U.S. except for south Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains. Native in Vermont
Other: Acorns are 5/8 in. to1 1/8 in. long; egg shaped; reddish brown. Important lumber species. Popular street tree as it grows rapidly, transplants easily, and is hardy in both city and cold conditions.
13. Eastern Hemlock or Canada Hemlock
Scientific Name: Tsuga canadensis
Leaves: Evergreen needles; 1/4 to 2/3 in. long; flattened and short; flexible at tip; tapering; shiny dark green above with two narrow white lines beneath and green edges minutely toothed.
Flowers: (cones) 5/8 to 3/4 in. long; elliptical; brown; short-stalked; hang down at ends of twigs; composed of many rounded cone scales. Have seeds that are paired, light brown and long-winged.
Buds: to in. thick; oval; chestnut brown; hairy scales
Bark: Cinnamon red to gray, tinged with purple, narrow ridges; deeply furrowed with broad scaly ridges.
Height: Height of 60-70 ft
Diam: Diameter of 2-3 ft
Range: South Ontario east to Cape Breton Island; south in mountains to north Alabama; west to east Minnesota. Native to Vermont
Other: Male flowers are yellow and female flowers are pink or pale green; both sexes on the same tree. The bark was historically used as a source of tannin in leather production. In addition, pioneers made tea from the leafy twigs and brooms from the branches.
14. Northern White Cedar or Eastern Arborvitae
Scientific Name: Thuja occidentalis
Leaves: 1/16 to 1/8 in. long; evergreen; flat scales closely overlapping in 4 rows; front and back two-ranked spray flattened with a single resin dot; dull yellow-green above and paler blue green beneath. Very soft foliage
Flowers: (cones) 3/8 in. long; eliptical; light brown; upright from short curved stalk; 8-10 paired, leathery, blunt-pointed scales; 4 usually bearing 2 tiny narrow-winged seeds.
Buds: Inconspicuous except flower buds
Bark: Light red-brown; thin; fibrous; shreddy; fissured into narrow connecting ridges
Height: Height of 40-70 ft.
Diam: Diameter of 1-3 ft
Range: Basically, North of the White Mountains. Southeast Manitoba east to Nova Scotia; south to New York; west to Illinois. Also, south locally to North Carolina. Native to Vermont.
Other: Most likely the first North American tree introduce into Europe. Foliage and bark is high in vitamin C and saved the crew of Jacques Cartier from scurvy in 1535. The name arbovitae is Latin for tree-of-life.
15. White Spruce
Scientific Name: Picea glauca
Leaves: Needles are to in. long, blue-green color, and not sharp to touch. Tendency to be crowded on the upper side of the branch. When the foliage is crushed, a pungent odor is noticed, similar to a skunk or cat spray.
Flowers: (Cones) 1 to in. long, narrowly oblong, and a light brown color
Buds: Sometimes have flexed scales and look ragged.
Bark: Thin, flaky or scaly and has an ashy brown color. When a layer of bark has been freshly exposed, the coloring looks somewhat silvery.
Height: Height of 60-70 ft.
Diam: Diameter of 18-24 in
Range: Northern N. America near Northern limit of trees from Alaska and British Columbia east to Labrador, south to Maine, and west to Minnesota; local in NW Montana, South Dakota, and Wyoming. Native in Vermont.
Other: Used for pulpwood. Important commercial tree species of Canada. The wood is valued for piano sounding boards, violins, and other musical instruments. The roots of white spruce were used by Native Americans for lacing birchbark canoes and making woven baskets.
16. Winged Euonymus
Scientific Name: Euonymus Alatus
Leaves: Opposite; 1-3 in. long. Dark green leaf color. Fall leaf color is bright red and extremely showy.
Flowers: Not ornamentally significant. Flowers will bloom in the late fall and are a yellow green color.
Buds: Regularly arranged with overlapping edges, brownish green and strongly divergent (drawing apart from a common point).
Bark: Gray brown. Euonymus has long corky wings along stems, which makes this shrub quite identifiable.
Height: Up to 15 ft. tall and spread of 12 -16 ft
Range: Native to Northeastern Asian and Central China. Can be planted in states ranging from Vermont and New Hampshire down to North Carolina to the Midwest in Illinois and some parts of Wisconsin.
Other: Used as an ornamental bush for many landscapes. Species has demonstrated an invasive tendency in some areas of New England. The invasiveness occurs by escaping from cultivation and naturalizing in minimally managed areas. Not native in Vermont.
18. White Ash
Scientific Name: Fraxinus americana L
Leaves: Opposite; pinnately compound; 8-12in. long with 5-9 leaflets 5 in. long. Finely saw-toothed or almost without teeth . Purple to reddish-yellow in fall
Flowers: Small (1/4 in. long), purplish, inconspicuous, in small clusters. Male and female flowers on separate trees
Buds: Gray or brown, rounded, rough
Bark: Dark gray. Smooth when young, then thick with deep furrows forming very distinctive diamond-shaped patterns
Height: Height of 80 ft
Diam: Diameter of 2 ft
Range: Southern Ontario to Cape Breton Island, south to northern Florida, west to eastern Texas, west to Minnesota. Native in Vermont.
Other: The wood of white ash is particularly suited for making baseball bats, tennis rackets, hockey sticks, polo mallets and oars.
19. Sugar Maple
Scientific Name: Acer saccharum
Leaves: 3.5 to 5.5 in. or 9 to 14 cm in diameter. Usually palmately 5-lobed
Flowers: Bright yellow, perfect and staminate
Buds: Terminal buds are 1/4 to 3/8 in. long, sharply pointed (similar to an upside-down sugar cone).
Bark: Gray on older trees; Deeply furrowed, with long irregular, thick plates or ridges, sometimes scaly, very variable
Height: 60-80 ft.
Diam: 2 ft.
Range: Northeastern; Local disjuncts in central North Carolina, northwestern South Carolina, and northeastern North Dakota. Native to Vermont.
Other: Twigs are slender and shiny. Samaras are U-shaped. Sugar maple is tapped for syrup and sugar. It takes 32 gallons of spring sap to boil down to 1 gallon of syrup or 8 lbs. of maple sugar. Also used as a source of timber.
20. Paper Birch
Scientific Name: Betula papyrifera
Leaves: 2-4 in. long, 1 -2 in. wide. Ovate; long-pointed; base rounded or obtuse; saw-toothed; dull dark green above, light yellow-green beneath; fall color light yellow.
Flowers: Brownish catkins in twos or threes; tiny; in early spring.
Buds: Chestnut brown; with scales; downy on margins.
Bark: Chalky to creamy white; smooth; thin; with long horizontal lines; separating into papery strips to reveal orange inner bark.
Height: 50-70 ft
Diam: 1-2 ft.
Range: Transcontinental across North America from Alaska to Labrador; south to New York, west to Oregon; also in Colorado and western North Carolina. Native to Vermont.
Other: Cones are 1 -2 in., narrow and cylindrical, hang on slender
stalk. Souvenirs of birch bark should only be taken from fallen
logs, since stripping bark from living trees leaves permanent black